An introduction to the analysis of generic relationships

In general, the forces of competition are imposing a need for more effective decision making at all levels in organizations. Progressive Approach to Modeling: Modeling for decision making involves two distinct parties, one is the decision-maker and the other is the model-builder known as the analyst. Therefore, the analyst must be equipped with more than a set of analytical methods.

An introduction to the analysis of generic relationships

The Position object is read into memory. The holds relationship is automatically traversed. The value held by the Position. EmployeePOID column is used to identify the single employee that needs to be read into memory.

The Employee object if any is read in and instantiated due to the automatic read indicated in the held by row of Figure The value of the Employee.

The Employee object is read into memory.

An introduction to the analysis of generic relationships

The value held by the Employee. EmployeePOID column is used to identify the single position that needs to be read into memory.

The Position object is read in and instantiated due to the automatic read indicated in the holds row. Because the relationship is to be automatically traversed, and to maintain referential integrity, a transaction is created.

The next step is to add update statements for each object to the transaction. Each update statement includes both the business attributes and the key values mapped in Figure Because relationships are implemented via foreign keys, and because those values are being updated, the relationship is effectively being persisted.

The transaction is submitted to the database and run see Introduction to Transaction Control for details. There is one annoyance with the way the holds relationship has been mapped into the database.

Had there been a potential requirement for the holds relationship to turn into a one-to-many relationship, something that a change case would indicate, then you would be motivated to implement the foreign key to reflect this potential requirement.

For example, the existing data model would support an employee holding many positions. However, had the object schema been taken into account, and if there were no future requirements motivating you to model it other wise, it would have been cleaner to implement the foreign key in the Employee table instead.


This is a one-to-many relationship — an employee works in one division and a single division has many employees working in it. As you can see in Figure 13 an interesting thing about this relationship is that it should be automatically traversed from Employee to Division, something often referred to as a cascading read, but not in the other direction.

Cascading saves and cascading deletes are also possible, something covered in the discussion of referential integrity. When an employee is read into memory the relationship is automatically traversed to read in the division that they work in.

If the application needs to it will read the Division object into memory, then it will set the value of Employee. Saving the relationship works in the same way as it does for one-to-one relationships — when the objects are saved so are their primary and foreign key values so therefore the relationship is automatically saved.

Every example in this article uses foreign keys, such as Employee. For example, if the Employee table of Figure 12 were to include a SocialSecurityNumber column then that would be an alternate key for that table assuming all employees are American citizens.

If this where the case you would have the option to replace the Position. In Figure 11 there is a many-to-many relationship between Employee and Task.

An introduction to the analysis of generic relationships

In the data schema of Figure 12 I needed to introduce the associative table EmployeeTask to implement a many-to-many relationship the Employee and Task tables. In relational databases the attributes contained in an associative table are traditionally the combination of the keys in the tables involved in the relationship, in the case EmployeePOID and TaskPOID.

The name of an associative table is typically either the combination of the names of the tables that it associates or the name of the association that it implements.Below you will see a chart of English language word roots that are common prefixes and suffixes to base words. (This list is similar to that which appeared previously on this site.).

Introduction & Summary Rules of thumb, intuition, tradition, and simple financial analysis are often no longer sufficient for addressing such common decisions as make-versus-buy, facility site selection, and process redesign. An Introduction to Content Analysis Content analysis is a research tool used to determine the presence of certain words or concepts within texts or sets of texts.

Introduction to Grounded Theory. By Steve Borgatti. Discussion drawn from: and fit things into a basic frame of generic relationships. The frame consists of the following elements: Element Description; I believe grounded theory draws from literary analysis, and one can see it here.

Causality (also referred to as causation, or cause and effect) is what connects one process (the cause) with another process or state (the effect), [citation needed] where the first is partly responsible for the second, and the second is partly dependent on the first.

In general, a process has many causes, which are said to be causal factors for it, and all lie in its past (more precise: none. This analysis will help you to examine the ten most important traits in a primarily good relationship to determine the degree to which each trait is present or absent.

It is designed for relationships in which there is no physical abuse, no sexual abuse, and very little if any emotional abuse.

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