His father, prominent jurist Tom C. From toClark practiced law as an associate and partner in the law firm of Clark, Reed and Clark.
To see labels, point to the image. Boss Figures 2 and 4, which appear in Clark's Field Notes about 21 Januaryillustrate his plans for improving the barge. The boat had a mainmast with a square sail, plus a spritsail see the discussion of the white pirogue when it left Pittsburgh, but broke twice under strong winds before reaching Wood River, and the sprit broke on the Ohio River in early September.
The men were still working on Clark's hinged replacement at Camp Dubois in mid-April of Rising from the stern in Clark's drawing is an ensign-staff which bears a naval pennant showing the national origin of the boat and its crew. The ensign-staff and flag are absent from Richard Boss's model—shown at the top of this page—only because they had accidentally been broken off and mislaid prior to the time the photograph was taken.
Tholes and oars Move to top The tholes, as Clark noted in his sketch, are "pins to row by. Also, they allow the oars to be left to lie over the side in the event of "action," or emergency, such as the need for the two men at the bow and stern oars to quickly seize the halyards to handle the sail.
Clark added the rectangular blocks of wood in which the thole-pins were mounted in order to raise the fulcrum several inches, allowing the oars to be raised enough to avoid high waves and large obstacles such as sawyers.
Rowlocks were made with either one or two pins; Clark used one, which was the more common practice at that time. At the points where the oars are to rest in the oarlocks, the oars are attached to the thole-pins with grommets, which are made by wrapping a single strand of hemp rope around the loom, or inboard length, of the oar, twisting the bight into a loop and slipping it over the thole-pin, then wrapping it around the loom again and tying off the ends.
The sail is loose-footed—that is, without a spar or "boom" to keep the bottom of it securely spread. The two rows of ropes faintly visible across the lower part of the sail are "reef points" by which the sail can be gathered up and tied in order to reduce the sail's area in a strong wind.
On September 30,for example, Clark reported a hard wind which turned the boat and made it rock, which frightened the Sioux chief they had taken aboard. Boss Setting poles Move to top six foot-long setting poles are slung on each side, aft.
Each has an iron tip on its lower end, for a secure purchase among the mud, sand and rocks of the river. Setting poles were especially useful for fending off drifting logs and snags, and avoiding rocks, shoals and sandbars. It was probably used to moor the boat to a tree any time they "came to"—stopped to rest or encamp.
Cordelling with that line would have been impractical because it would usually draw the bow toward shore. Instead, the line was attached to a pivot point on the mast-head, and led forward, according to Boss, "through the eye of a 10 to foot adjustable pendant which was secured at the bow.
By adjusting the length of the pendant, the tow line's effective fore and aft point of attachment relative to the vessel's center of lateral resistance could be controlled. Storage lockers Move to top The notes accompanying the sketch in Figure 4 pertain to the storage lockers Clark devised, including hinged lids that could be raised for defensive protection.
The planking required was sawed and trimmed by a detail of soldiers under Sergeant Pryor in mid-February of at Camp Dubois. Evidently he had no reason to include it, but it has elicited numerous conjectures for many years.
Should it be flatter or rounder? Four times between May 24 and July 26,the barge nearly rolled over—surely a terrifying prospect at the time. Captain's cabin Move to top The captains' cabin sometimes called the "cuddy cabin," although never by Lewis or Clarksituated on the after deck, contained two bunk-beds, a bench, a desk to hold a portable writing-desk with inkwell, shelves for the captains' library, and instruments such as the Hadley's quadrant or octant and sextantClark's two-pole chainand the log line, reel and ship.
The six cabin windows shown in Clark's sketch Figure 2three on each side, could be closed with sliding shutters on the inside. The three on the near side in the photo are obscured by the bundle of setting-poles. On June 21,the day that the men had to warp See Rowing, poling, towing below the barge up some exceptionally rapid water, Clark reported that they accidentally broke one of the starboard windows and lost some spare oars that were slung under the windows.
The cabin was topped by a quarterdeck shaded by an awning. This was the post of the helmsman, who was in control of the tiller, which was attached to the rudder. The rudder Clark showed in his sketch was rather small for a vessel of this size and design, if he drew it to scale—and Clark is believed to have been meticulous about such details.
It might have been adequate when going against the current, but during the day downriver voyage in the spring of it could have made steering sluggish. Furthermore, it appears that the helmsman was originally stationed in the cabin, but during the shakedown cruise from Camp Dubois to St.
Charles it became obvious that he could not see ahead clearly from that location, so the tiller was extended up to the quarterdeck, as shown in Boss's model. Move to top Barges remained the principal river craft for military transport, and keelboats for river commerce, until steamboats completely took over those roles around You can also order a custom essay, term paper, research paper, thesis or dissertation on Lewis and Clark topics at our professional custom essay writing service which provides students with high-quality custom written papers.
% No plagiarism and on-time delivery guarantee! Read translation in: Punjabi Italian Urdu. C. S. Lewis1 was one of the most influential, if not the most influential, Anglican writer of the twentieth century.
Lewis & Clark prepares students for lives of local and global engagement. Located in Portland, Oregon, the college educates approximately 2, undergrad.
Research Paper On Lewis And Clark Lewis and Clark Expedition In Meriwether Lewis and William Clark launched an expedition that was extremely important for the American land discovery and the whole future of the country. On Monday the 14th of May , we left our establishment at the mouth of the river du Bois or Wood river, a small river which falls into the Mississippi, on the east-side, a mile below the Missouri, and having crossed the Mississippi proceeded up the Missouri on our intended voyage of discovery, under the command of Captain Clarke.
Captain Lewis was to join us in two or three days on our passage. Lewis & Clark Trail Heritage Foundation. National Park Service Lewis and Clark National Historic Trail. Journal excerpts are from The Journals of the Lewis and Clark Expedition, edited by Gary E.
Moulton 13 vols. (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, ).