Lynching or "lynch law" is usually associated in the United States with punishment directed toward blacks, who made up a highly disproportionate number of its victims. While the origins of the term "lynch" are somewhat unclear, many sources cite William Lynch, an eighteenth-century plantation owner in Virginia who helped to mete out vigilante justice. Lynching acquired its association with violence against blacks early in the nineteenth century.
There is some evidence that 12 of the African American victims were murdered by black or mixed-race mobs. According to newspaper accounts, the most common justification for mob violence was the alleged murder of a white person.
The second most frequent justification was the purported rape or attempted rape of a white woman. While alleged violations of criminal law murder, rape, arson, burglary, assault were the most common reasons mob members Lynching 1930 for their actions, in some instances lynch victims were accused of race crimes, that is, of violations of the racial code of conduct that governed social relations between blacks and whites during the era of Jim Crow segregation.
The case of Eli Cooper is illustrative. The gang shot Cooper, set the church on fire, and pitched his body into the flames. Mob violence was somewhat concentrated across middle and south Georgia, especially in the southwestern corner of the state, where Decatur County witnessed the most lynching activity—thirteen incidents.
As a form of social control, lynchings may have been more common in rural areas that were dependent upon a black labor force, especially the cotton -producing counties in the central part of the state and the expanding lumber and forest-products areas in the southwest.
It has also been suggested that mob violence was more frequent in locales where social change was threatening to alter traditional relations between blacks and whites.
Lynchings were less common in northeast Georgia and along the coast. The mob tied the men to fence posts and riddled their bodies with bullets; no one was ever charged in the killings. Notorious Lynchings Leo Frank Marker lynchings had a devastating impact on the families, friends, and communities of the victims.
Several particular incidents, however, received significant media attention as a result of their brutality. Leo Frankfor example, a Jewish factory superintendent accused of killing a young girl in Atlanta, was one of the relatively few white victims of lynch-mob "justice" in the state.
His lynching in brought unwelcome national and international scrutiny to Georgia.
Sam Hose Although most lynchings were simple executions in which the victim was hanged or shot to death, some were accompanied by spectacle and grotesque torture. Arguably one of the best known of the latter was the torture murder of Sam Hose a. Hose was in jail, charged with murdering a white man.
An unmasked mob advanced on the jail and took Hose to a site about a mile away. They tied him to a small pine tree, cut off his ears, and mutilated his body with knife cuts. The mob then doused him with oil and set him on fire; his body convulsed, and his veins burst.
From the cooling ashes, spectators took pieces of bone and bits of flesh, along with remnants of the pine sapling, as souvenirs. After Johnson fled the crime scene, a mob-led manhunt scoured the county for him and others suspected to be involved in the murder.
On May 18 the mob found and lynched one of these suspects, Hayes Turner.The NAACP's first report, Thirty Years of Lynching in the United States, , released in the race riot year of , influenced the United States House of Representatives to approve by a vote of to the Dyer Anti-Lynching Bill in Despite the reduced tolerance for lynching in the South after and increasing opposition to mob violence outside the South, anti-lynching legislation never materialized.
In the Moore's Ford Memorial Committee and the Georgia Historical Society erected a historical marker commemorating the lynching. The lynching of Thomas Shipp and Abram Smith, Lynching of Thomas Shipp and Abram Smith, On a hot August night in a crowd gathered in front of an Indiana jail — men, women, and children shouting and jeering, demanding that the sheriff release his three prisoners.
Lynching A mob of 10, whites took sledgehammers to the county jailhouse doors to get at these two young blacks accused of raping a white girl; the girl’s uncle saved the life of a third by proclaiming the man’s innocence. In , there were 21 lynchings reported, across 9 states: 6 in Georgia, 4 in Mississippi, 3 in Texas, 2 in both Indiana and South Carolina, and 1 in Alabama, Florida, North Carolina and Oklahoma each.
During the s, after thousands of African Americans had been put to death by mobs -- particularly in the South but in other regions of the country as well -- lynchings were no longer unusual or shocking events that deviated from the norm.