Hellenism is the term generally used by historians to refer to the period from the death of Alexander the Great B. Egypt was the last important survivor of the political system which had developed as a consequence both of the victories of Alexander and of his premature death. Finally, Hellenization is used with reference to Judea, Persia, etc.
Surrounded by the shambolic ruins of World War II, human and structural, filmmakers had ready-made drama even in their backdrop, the atmosphere anxiety-charged and utterly uncertain.
After twenty-one years under Mussolini, all bets were off as to what direction Italy would take. In the war's aftermath, members of the Resistance including several of the neo-realist directors had to come to terms those who collaborated.
Though unstated, this almost civil war-like tension fuels neo-realist cinema. Characteristics Ideologically, the characteristics of Italian neorealism were: Although they owed a debt to Renoir with whom both Luchino Visconti and Michelangelo Antonioni had workedthe neo-realists respected the entirety of the reality they filmed.
This meant occasionally showing scenes in real-time and always resisting the temptation to manipulate by editing. Scenes are shot on location, with no professional extras and often a largely unprofessional cast. Set in rural areas or working-class neighborhoods, the stories focus on everyday people, often children, with an emphasis on the unexceptional routines of ordinary life.
Neorealism preferred location shooting rather than studio work, as well as the grainy kind of photography associated with documentary newsreels.
|American Realism - Wikipedia||This movement was a reaction against romanticism.|
While it is true that, for a while, the film studios were unavailable after the war, neorealist directors shunned them primarily because they wanted to show what was going on in the streets and piazzas of Italy immediately after the war.
Contrary to the belief that explains on-location shooting by its supposed lower cost, such filming often cost much more than work in the more easily controlled studios; in the streets, it was never possible to predict lighting, weather, and the unforeseen occurrence of money-wasting disturbances.
Economic factors do, however, explain another characteristic of neorealist cinema - its almost universal practice of dubbing the sound track in post-production, rather than recording sounds on the supposedly 'authentic' locations.
Perhaps the most original characteristic of the new Italian realism in film was the brilliant use of nonprofessional actors by Rossellini, De Sica, and Visconti, though many of the films accepted as neorealist depended upon excellent performances by seasoned professional actors.
Some film historians have tended to portray neo-realism as an authentic movement with universally agreed-upon stylistic or thematic principles.
In fact, Italian neorealist cinema represents a hybrid of traditional and more experimental techniques. Moreover, political expediency often motivated interpretations of postwar neorealism that overlooked the important elements of continuity between realist films made during the Fascist era and realist films made by the neorealists.
The most influential critical appraisals of Italian neorealism today emphasize the fact that Italian neorealist cinema rested upon artifice as much as realism and established, in effect, its own particular realist conventions.
All too many early assessments of Italian neorealism focused lazily upon the formulaic statement that Italian neorealism meant no scripts, no actors, no studios, and no happy endings.
In the edition of his first resistance novel, Il sentiero dei nidi di ragno The Path to the Nest of Spiders,Italo Calvino — reminded his readers that Italian neorealism was never a school with widely shared theoretical principles.
Rather, it arose from a number of closely associated discoveries of an Italian popular culture that had traditionally been ignored by 'high' Italian culture. Neorealist film and literature replaced an official cinema and literature characterized by pompous rhetoric and a lack of interest in the quotidian and the commonplace.
Cesare Zavattini, who functions as a kind of godfather of the movement, stated: Breezy fare this is not, but it did significantly alter European filmmaking and eventually cinema around the world. Neo-realism reflected a new freedom in Italy and the willingness to pose provocative questions about what movies could do.
Many of the painters felt the influence of older U.S. artists such (through all mediums including painting, literature and music), American Realism attempted to portray the exhaustion and a member of the Ashcan School, was most famous for his numerous paintings of New York and the theater, and of various aspects of luxury and modern. Get an answer for 'What were the main features of the theatre of Realism?' and find homework help for other Realism questions at eNotes. American Realism was a style in art, music and literature that depicted contemporary social realities and the lives and everyday activities of ordinary people. The movement began in literature in the midth century, and became an important tendency in visual art in the early 20th century.
As director Giuseppe Bertolucci Bernardo's brother noted: Italian neorealist films stressed social themes the war, the resistance, poverty, unemployment ; they seemed to reject traditional Hollywood dramatic and cinematic conventions; they often privileged on-location shooting rather than studio work, as well as the documentary photographic style favored by many directors under the former regime; and they frequently but not always employed nonprofessional actors in original ways.
Film historians have unfortunately tended to speak of neo-realism as if it were an authentic movement with universally agreed-upon stylistic or thematic principles. While the controlling fiction of the best neorealist works was that they dealt with universal human problems, contemporary stories, and believable characters from everyday life, the best neorealist films never completely denied cinematic conventions, nor did they always totally reject Hollywood codes.
The basis for the fundamental change in cinematic history marked by Italian neorealism was less an agreement on a single, unified cinematic style than a common aspiration to view Italy without preconceptions and to employ a more honest, ethical, but no less poetic, cinematic language in the process.
These masterpieces by Rossellini, De Sica, and Visconti are indisputably major works of art that capture the spirit of postwar Italian culture and remain original contributions to film language.
But with the exception of Rome, Open City, they were relatively unpopular within Italy and achieved success primarily among intellectuals and foreign critics.
The portrait of a desolate, poverty-stricken country outraged politicians anxious to prove that Italy was on the road to democracy and prosperity."Realism aims at an exact, complete and honest reproduction of the social environment, of the age in which the author lives, because such studies are justified by reason, by the demands made by public interest and understanding, and because they are free from falsehood and deception.
Dramatic literature, the texts of plays that can be read, as distinct from being seen and heard in performance. All plays depend upon a general agreement by all participants—author, actors, and audience—to accept the operation of theatre and the conventions associated with it, just as players.
Hellenism is the term generally used by historians to refer to the period from the death of Alexander the Great ( B.C.E.) to the death of Cleopatra and the incorporation of Egypt in the Roman Empire in 30 B.C.E.
Egypt was the last important survivor of the political system which had developed as a consequence both of the victories of Alexander and of his premature death. In the United States, realism was a popular style from the mid's to about Among its practitioners were William Dean Howells (The Rise of Silas Lapham, ) and Henry James (The Portrait of a Lady, ).
American Realism was a style in art, music and literature that depicted contemporary social realities and the lives and everyday activities of ordinary people.
The movement began in literature in the midth century, and became an important tendency in visual art in the early 20th century. Audience for sports (spectators) -- competition -- outcome not pre-determined (as it is with most theatre--though some plays have varied outcomes (Night of January 16 and The Mystery of Edwin Drood).
The audience gives its "permission" to the art.