Two measures are presented. Archaic globalization An intermediate node occurrence rate Century stress index provides a the of centrality. The short path distances to all other places are summed to provide a system-effort measure Of accessibility. Both measures show Moscow to have been most central and accessible with aggregate least effort.
UEMOA makes low use of interstate connection possibilities, lacks adequate direct links between member states, routes significant interstate traffic through operators outside the sub region, and has a wide range of tariffs for interstate communications. As a result of the poor quality but expensive telecommunication services, businesses in Africa are less competitive as they lack up to-date information on prices of goods and services.
However, there are some encouraging signs in the ICT sector. For example, fixed line telephone connectivity has increased in most regional economic communities as policies on foreign investment have been liberalized ECA, The use of mobile telephone services has also increased with the greater openness of markets and cross-border investment in service provision.
Egypt and South African telephone companies have been active in establishing mobile telephone companies in other African countries. Internet connectivity is also increasing rapidly in Africa. A private limited company, COMTEL, was registered in May for national communications operators and other partners to promote investment in communications.
The company's goals are to attract investment, build institutional capacity, ensure efficient telecommunications services, introduce new technologies, and help establish regional operators. The Southern African Telecommunications Association is also involved in coordinating technical standards, tariffs, and public -private partnerships to improve connectivity among SADC member states.
Continental initiatives Several continental initiatives are enhancing the effectiveness of communications at the national level and promoting intra-African trade and regional integration. African Telecommunications Union The African Telecommunications Union, established inseeks to foster the rapid development of information and communication technology in Africa to improve service, access, and interconnections between African countries.
It has a wide range of objectives covering such issues as joint capacity building, regional policy convergence, financing of joint projects, exchange of information and standardization of tariffs and technology.
Regional African Satellite Communications Organizations The Regional African Satellite Communications Organization RASCOMcreated in the early s by African telecommunications ministers, has as its main objective to extend affordable telecommunications services to the entire population of Africa, by setting up telecommunications infrastructure based on satellite technology.
It also aims to establish direct links between African countries. It intended to provide a guiding framework for African countries in modernizing and interconnecting their information and communication infrastructure and services.
The project proved unsuccessful, however, due to political diversity, concentration on international links instead of national networks, cultural differences, and financial constraints.
International Payments Mechanisms; Insurance Requirements; and Customs Guarantees ECA studies reveal that the documentary credit payment system is the most popular international payment system in Africa.
However, this practice is characterized by cumbersome and complex procedures. The basis of the system is a series of checks in which the progress of goods towards the buyer is pinned to the progress of payment to the seller.
The process is time consuming, requires physical movement of documents between different banking establishments in two different countries and is not well understood and badly managed by many users.
Indeed it has been reported that half of all requests for payment are rejected on grounds of documentary inconsistencies. In addition, the system is open to fraud. Insurance Concerning road transport, African regional economic communities have introduced common insurance schemes.
COMESA, for example, has the third party motor insurance scheme Yellow Card that provides for third party insurance cover, valid in all the transit and destination states including medical bills for crew. Customs guarantee Customs security is one of the major difficulties in freight transit.
This has to be ensured by the establishment of a financial guarantee and mechanism that makes sure that goods in transit do not enter the transit country market without the necessary taxes and customs duties being paid. Guarantee payments represent a high cost for transport operators. In Africa, however, no sub regional organization has managed to put in place a satisfactory system.
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Customs services in Cote d'Ivoire and Senegal, for example, require bank guarantees. Burkina Faso, Benin and Niger have all instituted guarantee funds, with the guarantee being cumulative paid in each of the countries transited and non-reimbursable.
The chambers of commerce manage the guarantee fund in all the three countries where it represents an important resource for these institutions. Multiplicity of currencies and exchange rate arrangements Monetary unions can generate potential large benefits for African countries through increased trade flows, and economic growth.
Monetary integration implies a medium-to long-term move towards forms of fixed exchange rates, with countries eventually adopting a common currency.
However, exchange rate arrangements in Africa are currently fragmented. Multiplicity of currencies increases international trade costs as businessmen are confronted with the cost of changing from one currency to another. This has been identified as one of the contributing factors to the high cost of international transport operations in Africa.
Although formally differentiated, the common currencies are exchangeable between the two communities one to one and are convertible into the euro at a fixed exchange rate.
Southern Africa, Namibia and Swaziland are members of a Common Monetary Area, where the South African rand circulates freely as a common currency under a floating arrangement. The multiplicity of currencies and exchange rate arrangements that exist in Africa makes a case for the establishment of clearing mechanisms.
Financial institutions Well-developed financial markets and institutions facilitate the exchange of goods and services and the mobilization of resources.
To advance economic integration RECs have established institutions to support regional financial cooperation. These institutions provide finance to facilitate trade, to undertake projects at the national and regional levels, and assist poorer members in each region.
With the reduction of exchange rate controls and the liberalization of current accounts since then, the clearinghouse requires restructuring.Click on Google Drive Folder 2.
Click on Period 2 Folder. 3. Click on Chapter 7, 8, or 9 for PowerPoints Indian export on Silk Road Sub-Saharan Africa's cultural identity China exports along the Silk Road Basis of Ghana trade Disagreements the.
Sub- Saharan Trade Routes Josiah Arterberry, Ashley Cagle, Trisdan Thompson The sub- Saharan trade route was started in B.C.E. to 1, C.E. R road (South Africa) topic. The R is a Regional Route in South Africa. Its north-western terminus is in Sun City, North West from where the road is designated the R and abruptly changes direction, heading south to Rustenburg.
Nov 22, · caninariojana.com Social Media Training Video Full Information In Hindi How to join Singup caninariojana.com ;- caninariojana.com Full Presentation Of F. Nov 23, · How will China's New Silk Road change Film laga - Film aksi terbaik - Film action terbaru sub indo PNG NAVAL BASE WILL PROTECT OUR MARITIME TRADE ROUTES.
The dynamic development of political, trade and economic relations needs strengthening if mutually advantageous partnerships are to develop between all states on the silk road.