Sponsored Program Low Tech Approach to Learning While technology undoubtedly has changed education, many educators opt to use a more traditional, low tech approach to learning. Some learning styles require a physical presence and interaction between the educator and the student.
According to the National Council for the Social Studieswhat ties these disciplines together into one domain is their focus on civic competence—on preparing students to be able to use knowledge of one's community and society to interpret data, solve problems, and make decisions in ways that support the goals of democracy.
In order to build civic competence, students must be proficient in reading the texts that are prevalent in various disciplines of the social studies, and students must know how to apply a variety of literacy strategies for reading and writing social studies texts.
Unfortunately, many students have not learned the literacy strategies they need to be successful social studies learners, as evidenced by the poor performance of too many students on national measures of social studies knowledge. On the most recent implementation of the National Assessment of Education Progress NAEPonly one in four eighth graders showed proficient knowledge of civics, only three out of ten showed proficient knowledge of geography, and only two out of ten showed proficient knowledge of U.
History National Center for Education Statistics, Lack of proficiency in reading and writing in social studies is exacerbated by the fact that schools are spending far less time on social studies instruction in the face of increasing pressure to improve standardized test scores in reading and mathematics Manzo, Here we examine both the unique literacy challenges faced by adolescents in social studies classrooms and the literacy strategies that can support social studies learning.
Some specific genres of texts are read and written more frequently in social studies than in other domains.
should, be done. To help in this pursuit, this workshop will engage participants in specific, practical A Survey of Classroom Teaching Methods 8 References 12 Appendix One: Active Learning Strategies for Enhancing the Lecture 13 Literature prepared by the National Center for Research to Improve Postsecondary Teaching and Learning. Substantial progress has been made in developing prevention programs for adolescent drug abuse. The most effective interventions target salient risk and protective factors at the individual, family, and/or community levels and are guided by relevant psychosocial . Striking a healthy work-life balance is a difficult challenge even in the best of times, but it is all the more daunting and necessary during times of economic stagnation and uncertainty.
Preparing students for success in social studies courses and for civic competence beyond high school means preparing students to read and write these texts. Textbooks In middle school and high school, the most common text that students must read in their social studies courses is a textbook.
Textbooks pose common problems for many adolescents. Many students find textbooks both unwieldy and dull and need strategies for reading and learning from textbook sources. While primary sources can make social studies come alive and help students see the relevance of particular events, reading them requires literacy proficiency Edinger, Because primary sources are written from a particular point of view, it is important to help students consider who wrote the text, when it was written, and why it was written.
Because they are actual artifacts rather than statements about events, primary sources require readers to make sophisticated inferences. Finally, primary sources may also be difficult to read because they are written in historical dialects or formal language. Timelines organize events chronologically.
Tables, graphs, charts, and maps concisely organize data in a small space.
Illustrations and photographs provide powerful visual information. Political cartoons convey opinions through a combination of images and text. Although 21st-century adolescents' lives abound with visual texts, they may not know how to interpret the meanings of the visual texts they encounter in the social studies classroom.
Reading each of these visual images requires specialized knowledge of the conventions of each genre. Students must know, among other things, how to read the key in a table, interpret the scale on a graph or chart, and know the particular symbols of political cartoons and illustrations e.
Research shows that several active reading strategies can support students' comprehension and learning in social studies. Eight key active reading strategies are discussed in the white paper Supporting Struggling Readers in Content Area Learning Brenner, Here, a few literacy strategies that are especially helpful for social studies learning are briefly discussed.
Below-proficient students, however, do not Beers, Accessing prior knowledge may be especially important in social studies, where students must make connections between a variety of disciplines and must find relevance in events that happened long ago NCSS, Making inferences If the point of learning social studies is to develop civic competence to solve problems and make decisions, then inference-making is a key literacy strategy.
Using knowledge of text structure Text structures are organizational patterns that organize texts Kerper, Two text structures that are prevalent in social studies texts are sequence and main idea with supporting details Pelisson, Many social studies texts present an overarching concept or definition the main idea somewhere near the beginning of the passage or near the endwhile the rest of the text provides supporting details that explain, expand on, and give examples.When professional development merely describes a skill to teachers, only 10 percent can transfer it to their practice; however, when teachers are coached through the awkward phase of implementation, 95 percent can transfer the skill (Bush, ; Truesdale, ).
Motivating teachers to improve instruction In the last two decades of education reform, teachers have been viewed as central to both the problems of education and their solutions. Education researchers and school leaders have faced the challenge of motivating teachers to high levels of performance.
instruction that raises student achievement. In The Thoughtful Classroom, we call these teachers strategic teachers, and for three reasons: 1.
Strategic teachers have a repertoire of research-based instructional strategies at their disposal. 2. Strategic teachers understand how and when to use particular strategies in their classrooms. methods and discuss their appropriateness for different types of outcome. A university education goes beyond mastering factual knowledge into higher order thinking skills and real world competencies.
The evidence-based formative assessments provided in this book are excellent methods for classroom teachers to measure the progress of their Tier 1 students.
This article is excerpted from 25 Quick Formative Assessments . The quality of an institutional teaching program may therefore be improved by persuading as many faculty members as possible to use those methods in their classes and providing them with the training and support they will need to implement the methods .